You are here: Home
Today, as the older territorial and national boundaries of the world become increasingly uncertain, the quest for national and transnational identity has intensified. This is a fairly recent phenomenon, the product of “the individual’s social locations and psychological crises in an increasingly uncertain world.” Previously, anxieties about identity tended to afflict only states of relatively recent creation-the so-called “new states” in Africa and Asia in particular- and areas of massive and diverse emigration such as the United States.
In the past decade, Europe has been hit by important problematic events that have challenged European Union (EU) institutions and its legal framework in a new way, unimagined before. The 2007–2008 financial crises (followed by the sovereign debt and Euro crises) and the more recent refugee crisis have confronted the EU with its limitations in important framework aspects, such as its economic-monetary and external affairs pillars. The EU was challenged to show its economic capacity and political availability to cope with shocks of a different nature, but the response given was not out of shortcomings and insufficiencies. These crises have made clear that the Economic and Monetary Union’s (EMU) construction was not as solid as one might have thought, and this was so first and foremost because it was not founded on truthful political integration. On the other hand, these recent and severe crises have confronted Europe (and not only the EU) with its economic and social fragilities in a globalized world and also with its progressive political and geo-strategic weakening, at least when compared with other developed or developing regional blocks. Consequently, Europe as a space capable of economic progress and social development and cohesion is now at stake.
THE EU CHARTER AND ITS APPLICATION AND INTERPRETATION
The EU’s New Human Rights Dimension
The Relationship between the Principle of Equality and Legislative Acts
After discovering the contradiction between the different-in fact, opposite- meanings of ‘principles’ in Article 52(5) CFREU, on the one hand, and in the case law of the Court on the other, the question is what the impact of this conceptual conflict might be on the application of the classification under Article 52(5) CFREU. Would the resolution of the ‘principles versus principles’ dispute be able to preclude subordinating the principle of equal treatment to the classification under Article 52(5) CFREU?
Transnational party groupings in the European Parliament
Better known than the transnational federations are the party blocs which have developed in the European Parliament and which in many cases share the same name as the bodies already described. Their activities have a specific focus – the assembly itself – and they can and do play an important role in its organization and operations. These party groupings at Strasbourg are then a part of the wider transnational parties, but because they have a more definite role they are much more significant.